El Niño Southern Oscillation and the transmission of hepatitis A virus in Australia

Wenbiao Hu, Anthony J McMichael and Shilu Tong
Med J Aust 2004; 180 (9): . || doi: 10.5694/j.1326-5377.2004.tb06041.x
Published online: 3 May 2004

Wenbiao Hu,* Anthony J McMichael, Shilu Tong

  • 1 Centre for Health Research, Queensland University of Technology
  • 2 National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra
  • 3 School of Public Health, and Centre for Health Research, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, QLD 4059.


  • 1. Helfenstein U. Box-Jenkins modelling in medical research. Stat Methods Med Res 1996; 5: 3-22.
  • 2. Kovats R, Bouma M, Hajat S, et al. El Niño and health. Lancet 2003; 362: 1481-1489.
  • 3. McMichael AJ, Campbell-Lendrum D, Ebi K, et al, editors. Climate change and human health: risks and responses. Geneva: WHO, 2003: 79-102.
  • 4. Nicholls N. El Niño-southern oscillation and vectorborne disease. Lancet 1993; 342: 1284-1285.
  • 5. Mbithi J, Springthorpe V, Sattar S. Effect of relative humidity and air temperature on survival of hepatitis A virus on environmental surfaces. Appl Environ Microbiol 1991; 57: 1394-1399.


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