Choosing the right statistical test or model can be baffling for researchers, and if it is not conducted correctly, the results from statistical analyses can be misleading. This article covers some common medical research designs, ranging from simple to more complicated, and provides an outline of which statistical test to apply in each instance. In these contexts, data are collected from a sample that is assumed to be representative of a wider population, and the conclusions drawn from the analyses apply to the wider population.1
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