Smoking and pregnancy

Jessica H Ford and Annette J Dobson
Med J Aust 2004; 181 (5): . || doi: 10.5694/j.1326-5377.2004.tb06279.x
Published online: 5 September 2004

Jessica H Ford,* Annette J Dobson†

  • School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Herston Road, Herston, QLD 4006.



This work was supported by a grant from the Medical Benefits Fund of Australia.

  • 1. English DR, Holman CDJ, Milne E, et al. The quantification of drug caused morbidity and mortality in Australia. 1995 edition. Canberra: Commonwealth Department of Human Services and Health, 1995.
  • 2. Ridolfo B, Stevenson C. The quantification of drug-caused mortality and morbidity in Australia, 1998. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2001. (AIHW Catalogue No. PHE 29; Drug Statistics Series No.7.)
  • 3. Castles A, Adams EK, Melvin CL, et al. Effects of smoking during pregnancy: five meta analyses. Am J Prev Med 1999; 16: 208-215.
  • 4. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Causes of death, Australia 2002. Canberra: ABS, 2002. (ABS Catalogue No. 3303.0.)
  • 5. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Interactive National Hospital Morbidity Data 2001–02. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Available at: 0102 (accessed Jan 2004).
  • 6. National Hospital Cost Data Collection. Round 6 (2001–02). Australian refined diagnosis related groups 4.2. Cost weights. Canberra: Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing, 2002. Available at: (accessed Apr 2004).
  • 7. Centre for Epidemiology and Research, NSW Department of Health. New South Wales mothers and babies, 2001. NSW Public Health Bull 2002; 13 Suppl S-4: 1-124.
  • 8. Australian Bureau of Statistics. National health survey 2001. Canberra: ABS, 2002 (ABS Catalogue No. 4364.0.)
  • 9. Adams EK, Melvin CL. Costs of maternal conditions attributable to smoking during pregnancy. Am J Prev Med 1998; 15: 212-219.
  • 10. Lumley J, Oliver S, Waters E. Interventions for promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2004. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


remove_circle_outline Delete Author
add_circle_outline Add Author

Do you have any competing interests to declare? *

I/we agree to assign copyright to the Medical Journal of Australia and agree to the Conditions of publication *
I/we agree to the Terms of use of the Medical Journal of Australia *
Email me when people comment on this article

Online responses are no longer available. Please refer to our instructions for authors page for more information.