Historically, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) has sourced all its blood supplies from the Australian Red Cross Blood Service. Recent ADF operations in the Middle East have highlighted a need to rely on other nations’ blood supply systems.
In 2008, the ADF embedded a surgical and intensive care team into the Netherlands-led forward health facility at the Uruzgan Medical Centre at Tarin Kowt in Afghanistan. To date, three teams have provided 2-month rotations as part of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan.
The Netherlands armed forces use a sophisticated system for supply of liquid and frozen blood products (frozen red cells, plasma and platelets).
We review Australian experience with the Dutch system of supplying blood products for major trauma resuscitation in Afghanistan.
Exsanguinating haemorrhage is the major cause of death in current military conflict operations.1,2 Recent data from Afghanistan and Iraq have shown that up to 15% of combat casualties require massive transfusion for traumatic injuries, with a mortality rate of 20% – 50%.3,4 This is a significantly higher proportion than in most civilian trauma centres, reflecting the severity and polytrauma of blast-associated injuries.
Current battlefield resuscitation practice focuses on early diagnosis and management of haemorrhagic shock, with the aim of rapidly reversing the lethal triad of acidosis, hypothermia, and coagulopathy, using aggressive resuscitation with a 1 : 1 : 1 ratio of red cells to plasma to platelets, and recombinant factor VIIa if required.5,6 Surgical intervention is focused on controlling haemorrhage and contamination (damage control), with definitive care delayed until normal coagulation and metabolic function have been restored.
Current options for provision of blood and blood products include fresh liquid supply, “walking donor panels” (people who are prepared to be called on to meet a particular emergency), and frozen blood products.
Supply of fresh liquid blood to combat areas is logistically challenging. Some military forces use pre-screened walking donor panels. However, this practice carries a risk of disease transmission, relies on the availability of appropriate donors, and restricts their duties for a period after donation, with implications for combat readiness (eg, infantry soldiers are probably not fit for combat for at least 24 hours). Blood salvage is not used in the combat environment.7
Historically, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) has relied on fresh blood supplies from the Australian Red Cross Blood Service. But in recent ADF operations in the Middle East, where obtaining supplies of fresh blood is not feasible because of time and distance factors, Australia has been reliant on a Dutch national supply system. The Netherlands armed forces use a sophisticated system for supply of liquid and frozen blood products (red cells, plasma and platelets).8
Frozen red cells have been used on deployed military operations since the Vietnam war.9 Using frozen blood during military operations is appealing, as it avoids many logistic resupply issues and extends the shelf-life compared with liquid blood. Deep-frozen red cells can be stored at – 80°C for at least 10 years,10 deep-frozen plasma (DFP) for 7 years and deep-frozen platelets for 2 years.11
The Netherlands developed a state-of-the-art frozen blood component system during North Atlantic Treaty Organization operations in Bosnia in the 1990s.7 In 2002, universal frozen blood products were introduced, including a frozen platelet system. This is the system now in place at the Uruzgan Medical Centre (UMC) at Tarin Kowt in Afghanistan, where the ADF embedded a surgical and intensive care team into the Netherlands-led forward health facility in 2008.
All blood products are sourced from the Netherlands Sanquin Blood Supply Foundation and derived from an unpaid volunteer donor pool.8 Blood is screened and tested in accordance with national and international guidelines. To minimise the risk of transmission of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, blood donations are not accepted from people who have a history of transfusion or have lived in the United Kingdom for more than 6 months between 1990 and 1996.12,13
The Netherlands Military Blood Bank is supplied with universal donor red cells and platelets (group O Rh D-positive and -negative), as well as universal donor plasma (group AB). UMC routinely holds 30 units of thawed, liquid red cells, 150 units of frozen red cells, 60 – 70 units of DFP and 40 units of frozen platelets, with increased demand met by resupply from the Netherlands.
Red cells are frozen in 40% glycerol (w/v) and transported from the Netherlands in temperature-monitored containers (TempTale [Sensitech, Beverly, Mass, USA]) maintained at less than – 65°C, and then transferred to a – 80°C freezer at UMC (Box 1).
Cells are processed in a fully closed, semi-automated ACP 215 processor (Haemonetics, Braintree, Mass, USA). They are deglycerolised with 12% sodium chloride, washed with 0.9% sodium chloride and 0.2% glucose, and resuspended in a citrate-containing nutritional solution (AS3 Nutricel [Gambro BCT, Lakewood, Colo, USA]) (Box 2).
Three units of red cells can be produced every 90 minutes (this includes 30 minutes’ thawing time). Regular processing allows liquid blood stores to be replenished to maintain an immediately available supply. The shelf-life of red cells after thawing and processing is 14 days at 2 – 6°C. Cell vitality studies show a mean freeze–thaw–wash recovery value of 90%, a mean 24-hour post-transfusion survival rate of 85%, normal or slightly impaired oxygen transport function, and minimal haemolysis.10
Group AB Rh D-positive plasma is provided as DFP using single-donor apheresis. Plasma is citrated and leukocyte-depleted. DFP is transported at a temperature of less than – 65°C and stored at – 80°C. Thawing takes about 30 minutes. The performance of DFP is almost identical to that of fresh frozen plasma.9
Leukocyte-depleted, volume-reduced frozen platelets are obtained by apheresis from a single donor, cryoprotected in a solution of 4% – 6% dimethyl sulfoxide and stored at – 80°.14 Each unit contains about 300 × 109 platelets (equivalent to 5–6 donor units of fresh buffy-coat platelets). The freezing process induces both morphological and functional changes.15,16 Compared with liquid-stored platelets, frozen platelets demonstrate a higher capacity to bind factor V and higher thromboxane A2 production after stimulation with adenosine diphosphate.16
Since ADF medical officers joined UMC in 2008, three teams have provided 2-month rotations as part of the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan. A prospective database was maintained during the ADF rotations. Of 158 patients undergoing surgery by Australian surgical teams, 17 received blood products intraoperatively (132 red cell units, 75 DFP units, 22 platelet units). One patient received recombinant factor VIIa.
A 25-year-old man presented with a blood pressure of 115/80 mmHg, a pulse of 120 beats/min, and a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. He had a left flank entry wound with no exit wound. His abdomen was distended, and frank haematuria was apparent in urine collected via a urinary catheter. A Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) scan gave positive results. There was no obvious chest injury. His initial haemoglobin level was 154 g/L. Resuscitation included rapid infusion of 5 units of non-crossmatched red cells before surgery.
Laparotomy revealed free intraperitoneal bleeding, jejunal blast perforations, liver laceration and non-expanding left pelvic haematoma. The spleen was intact. There was a colonic contusion and a mesocolic haematoma. The lower pole of the kidney was macerated, with bleeding into the renal pedicle. A damage-control approach was adopted, involving stapled exclusion of the small bowel, left nephrectomy, packing and laparostomy. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) for a planned return to theatre within 24 hours.
The patient remained haemodynamically stable in the ICU. Coagulation studies the following morning showed an activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of 14.6 s (reference range [RR], 28–40 s); and a prothrombin time (PT) of 19.9 s (RR, 10–16 s). At definitive laparotomy, surgical packs were densely adherent, but there was no evidence of ongoing bleeding. The patient’s further postoperative course was largely unremarkable. On discharge from the ICU at Day 3, his haemoglobin level was 114 g/L.
On arrival, he was severely shocked, with poor capillary perfusion, systolic blood pressure of 60 mmHg and a pulse of 130 beats/min. He was distressed and, within minutes, lost consciousness. Examination revealed anterior entry and posterior exit wounds to the right thigh, with a large haematoma and compartment syndrome.
Operative findings were laceration of the superficial femoral artery, superficial femoral vein and profunda femoris vessels, with extensive cavitation, soft tissue damage and multiple comminuted bone fragments. The patient was clinically coagulopathic. A temporary vascular shunt was inserted and fasciotomies were performed, with debridement and external fixation. Bleeding from the posterior thigh exit wound was controlled with HemCon bandage (HemCon Medical Technologies, Portland, Ore, USA) and pressure.
After receiving 1 L of saline in the emergency room, the patient was given four non-crossmatched units of red cells, three units of DFP and one unit of DFP with platelets within 40 minutes. A further eight units of red cells, six units of DFP and two units of DFP with platelets were administered over the following 3 hours. Active warming was used throughout surgery. After leg reperfusion, the patient required intravenous administration of calcium gluconate, insulin and dextrose because there were electrocardiographic signs of severe hyperkalaemia.
At 20:15, the patient’s temperature was 37.4°C, base excess was − 1 mmol/L, and coagulation times were essentially normal (APTT, 46 s; PT, 13.8 s). There were no clinical signs of coagulopathy by 22:30.
Resuscitation continued immediately after the operation, with the patient receiving a total of 16 units of red cells, 15 units of DFP and four units of DFP with platelets. In anticipation of potential myoglobinaemic renal failure, a forced diuresis regimen was undertaken for the next 24 hours. The patient’s condition remained stable, without signs of clinical or laboratory coagulopathy. He was evacuated to another facility 24 hours after surgery.
These cases demonstrate the use of integrated liquid and frozen blood components for patients with battlefield trauma. Non-crossmatched units were used immediately, with formal crossmatching, typing, antibody screening and agglutination tests performed as soon as practicable. The cases illustrate that, in an austere environment or during mass casualty events, decisions must frequently be made on clinical grounds, often without recourse to investigations.17
Except in Case study 2 (described here), there was no clinical evidence of coagulopathy in patients treated with blood products at UMC — an unusual observation given the severity of the injuries (median injury severity score, 41; range, 4 – 75). Aggressive management of hypothermia was practised, including maintaining emergency and operating room temperatures above 28°C, active patient warming, and warming of all intravenous and irrigation fluids to 40°C.
Our experience with “re-look” laparotomy was that packs were densely adherent. Despite simple measures such as irrigation to facilitate removal of packs, serosal damage and liver surface bleeding occurred, but these were easily controlled. We postulate this may be a thrombin-type effect related to activated platelets. This effect has not previously been reported and requires investigation.
Recent operations in the Middle East have identified potential requirements for frozen blood products, particularly platelets, in military trauma settings. In partnership with the Australian Red Cross Blood Service, the ADF is investigating the utility of frozen platelets within the Australian therapeutic regulatory framework. Australian doctors should become familiar with the use and efficacy of these blood components.
As the pendulum swings towards early component therapy in trauma resuscitation, the use of an integrated fresh–frozen blood bank may also help to meet the logistical and geographical challenges of supplying blood products to people in rural Australia.
- 1. Hutt J, Wallis L. Blood products in trauma resuscitation. J R Army Med Corps 2006; 152: 121-127.
- 2. Alam HB, Rhee R. New developments in fluid resuscitation. Surg Clin N Am 2007; 87: 55-72.
- 3. Borgman MA, Spinella PC, Perkins JG, et al. The ratio of blood products transfused affects mortality in patients receiving massive transfusion at a combat support hospital. J Trauma 2007; 63: 805-813.
- 4. Huber-Wager S, Qvick M, Mussack T, et al. Massive blood transfusion and outcome in 1062 poly trauma patients: a prospective study based on the trauma registry of the German Trauma Society. Vox Sang 2007; 92: 69-78.
- 5. Holcomb JB, Wade CE, Michalek JE, et al. Increased plasma and platelet to red blood cell ratios improves outcome in 466 massively transfused civilian trauma patients. Ann Surg 2008; 248: 447-458.
- 6. Defense Medical Readiness Training Institute. Joint theater trauma system clinical practice guideline, 25 October 2007. http://www.dmrti.army.mil/documents/ (accessed Mar 2009 - requires authorised access).
- 7. Reade MC. Blood products on operational deployments. ADF Health 2001; 2: 65-70.
- 8. Lelkens C, Koning JG, de Kort B, et al. Experiences with frozen blood products in the Netherlands military. Transfus Apher Sci 2006; 34: 289-298.
- 9. Moss GS, Valeri CR, Brodine CE. Clinical experience with the use of frozen blood in combat casualties. N Engl J Med 1968: 278: 747-752.
- 10. Valeri CR, Pivacek LE, Gray AD, et al. The safety and therapeutic effectiveness of human red cells stored at – 80 degrees C for as long as 21 years. Transfusion 1989; 29: 429-437.
- 11. Valeri CR, Srey R, Lane JP, Ragno G. Effect of WBC reduction and storage temperature of PLTs frozen with 6 percent DMSO for as long as 3 years. Transfusion 2003; 43: 1162-1166.
- 12. van Everdingen JJ, Klazinga NS, Casparie AF. Blood transfusion policy in Dutch hospitals 1988. Int J Health Care Qual Assur 2007; 20: 77-83.
- 13. Council of Europe. Guide to the preparation, use and quality assurance of blood components. 11th ed. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 2005.
- 14. Valeri CR, Ragno G, Khuri S. Freezing human platelets with 6 percent dimethyl sulfoxide with removal of the supernatant solution before freezing and storage at – 80 degrees C without post-thaw processing. Transfusion 2005; 45: 1890-1898. Erratum in: Transfusion 2006; 46: 313.
- 15. Barnard MR, MacGregor H, Ragno G, et al. Fresh, liquid-preserved, and cryopreserved platelets: adhesive surface receptors and membrane procoagulant activity. Transfusion 1999; 39: 880-888.
- 16. Khuri SF, Healey N, MacGregor H, et al. Comparison of the effects of transfusions of cryopreserved and liquid-preserved platelets on hemostasis and blood loss after cardiopulmonary bypass. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1999; 117: 172-183; discussion 183-184.
- 17. Neuhaus SJ, Sharwood PF, Rosenfeld JV. Terrorism and blast explosions: lessons for the Australian surgical community ANZ J Surg 2006; 76: 637-644.
Publication of your online response is subject to the Medical Journal of Australia's editorial discretion. You will be notified by email within five working days should your response be accepted.