A clinical trials agenda for testing interventions in earlier stages of psychotic disorders

Patrick D McGorry, Alison R Yung, Christos Pantelis and Ian B Hickie
Med J Aust 2009; 190 (4): 33.
  • Patrick D McGorry1,2,3
  • Alison R Yung2
  • Christos Pantelis1
  • Ian B Hickie4

  • 1 University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC.
  • 2 ORYGEN Youth Health, Melbourne, VIC.
  • 3 ORYGEN Research Centre, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC.
  • 4 Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW.


Competing interests:

None identified.

  • 1. Häfner H, Maurer K, Trendler G, et al. Schizophrenia and depression: challenging the paradigm of two separate diseases — a controlled study of schizophrenia, depression and healthy controls. Schizophr Res 2005; 77: 11-24.
  • 2. McGorry PD, Purcell R, Hickie IB, et al. Clinical staging: a heuristic model for psychiatry and youth mental health. Med J Aust 2007; 187 (7 Suppl): S40-S42. <MJA full text>
  • 3. Yung AR, Phillips LJ, Yuen HP, McGorry PD. Risk factors for psychosis in an ultra high-risk group: psychopathology and clinical features. Schizophr Res 2004; 67: 131-142.
  • 4. Yung AR, McGorry PD, McFarlane CA, et al. Monitoring and care of young people at incipient risk of psychosis. Schizophr Bull 1996; 22: 283-303.
  • 5. Edwards J, McGorry PD. Implementing early intervention in psychosis. A guide to establishing early psychosis services. London: Martin Dunitz, 2002.
  • 6. Andrews G, Sanderson K, Corry J, et al. Cost-effectiveness of current and optimal treatment for schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 2003; 183: 427-435.
  • 7. Wang PS, Simon G, Kessler RC. The economic burden of depression and the cost-effectiveness of treatment. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 2003; 12: 22-33.
  • 8. Insel TR. Beyond efficacy: the STAR*D trial. Am J Psychiatry 2006; 163: 5-7.
  • 9. Berger GE, Wood S, McGorry PD. Incipient neurovulnerability and neuroprotection in early psychosis. Psychopharmacol Bull 2003; 37: 79-101.
  • 10. Yao JK, Reddy RD. Membrane pathology in schizophrenia: implication for arachidonic acid signaling. ScientificWorldJournal 2002; 2: 1922-1936.
  • 11. Phillips LJ, McGorry PD, Garner B, et al. Stress, the hippocampus and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis: implications for the development of psychotic disorders. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2006; 40: 725-741.
  • 12. Corcoran C, Walker E, Huot R, et al. The stress cascade and schizophrenia: etiology and onset. Schizophr Bull 2003; 29: 671-692.
  • 13. Ng F, Berk M, Dean O, Bush A. Oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders: evidence base and therapeutic implications. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2008; 11: 851-876.
  • 14. Berger GE, Proffitt TM, McConchie M, et al. Ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid in first-episode psychosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry 2007; 68: 1867-1875.
  • 15. Amminger GP, Schäfer MR, Papageorgiou K, et al. Relationship between reduced erythrocyte membrane fatty acids and transition to psychosis in ultra high risk individuals [abstract]. Schizophr Res 2008; 98 Suppl 1: 108.
  • 16. Berger GE, Wood SJ, Pantelis C, et al. Implications of lipid biology for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2002; 36: 355-366.
  • 17. Ross BM, Seguin J, Sieswerda LE. Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid? Lipids Health Dis 2007; 6: 21.
  • 18. Young G, Conquer J. Omega-3 fatty acids and neuropsychiatric disorders. Reprod Nutr Dev 2005; 45: 1-28.
  • 19. Bachmann RF, Schloesser RJ, Gould TD, Manji HK. Mood stabilizers target cellular plasticity and resilience cascades: implications for the development of novel therapeutics. Mol Neurobiol 2005; 32: 173-202.
  • 20. Jope RS. Anti-bipolar therapy: mechanism of action of lithium. Mol Psychiatry 1999; 4: 117-128.
  • 21. Moore GJ, Bebchuk JM, Wilds IB, et al. Lithium-induced increase in human brain grey matter. Lancet 2000; 356: 1241-1242.
  • 22. Fornai F, Longone P, Cafaro L, et al. Lithium delays progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008; 105: 2052-2057.
  • 23. Berger G, Dell’Olio M, Amminger P, et al. Neuroprotection in emerging psychotic disorders. Early Interv Psychiatry 2007; 1: 114-127.
  • 24. Velakoulis D, Wood SJ, Wong MTH, et al. Hippocampal and amygdala volumes according to psychosis stage and diagnosis: a magnetic resonance imaging study of chronic schizophrenia, first-episode psychosis, and ultra-high-risk individuals. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006; 63: 139-149.
  • 25. Phillips LJ, McGorry PD, Garner B, et al. Stress, the hippocampus and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis: implications for the development of psychotic disorders. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2006; 40: 725-741.
  • 26. Thompson KN, Phillips LJ, Komesaroff P, et al. Stress and HPA-axis functioning in young people at ultra high risk for psychosis. J Psychiatr Res 2007; 41: 561-569.
  • 27. Thompson KN, Berger G, Phillips LJ, et al. HPA axis functioning associated with transition to psychosis: combined DEX/CRH test. J Psychiatr Res 2007; 41: 446-450.
  • 28. Dupin N, Mailliet F, Rocher C, et al. Common efficacy of psychotropic drugs in restoring stress-induced impairment of prefrontal plasticity. Neurotox Res 2006; 10: 193-198.
  • 29. Berk M, Copolov D, Dean O, et al. N-acetyl cysteine as a glutathione precursor for schizophrenia — a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Biol Psychiatry 2008; 64: 361-368.
  • 30. Berk M, Copolov DL, Dean O, et al. N-acetyl cysteine for depressive symptoms in bipolar disorder — a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Biol Psychiatry 2008; 64: 468-475.


remove_circle_outline Delete Author
add_circle_outline Add Author

Do you have any competing interests to declare? *

I/we agree to assign copyright to the Medical Journal of Australia and agree to the Conditions of publication *
I/we agree to the Terms of use of the Medical Journal of Australia *
Email me when people comment on this article

Responses are now closed for this article.