- Bacteriophage (phage) therapy is re‐emerging a century after it began.
- Activity against antibiotic‐resistant pathogens and a lack of serious side effects make phage therapy an attractive treatment option in refractory bacterial infections.
- Phages are highly specific for their bacterial targets, but the relationship between in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy remains to be rigorously evaluated.
- Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles of phage therapy are generally based on the classic predator–prey relationship, but numerous other factors contribute to phage clearance and optimal dosing strategies remain unclear.
- Combinations of fully characterised, exclusively lytic phages prepared under good manufacturing practice are limited in their availability.
- Safety has been demonstrated but randomised controlled trials are needed to evaluate efficacy.
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