Deconfounding confounding part 1: traditional explanations

John R Attia, Michael P Jones and Alexis Hure
Med J Aust 2017; 206 (6): . || doi: 10.5694/mja16.00491
Published online: 3 April 2017

The first article of this series1 presented a framework to assist in judging the presence of bias:

  • John R Attia1,2
  • Michael P Jones3
  • Alexis Hure1

  • 1 Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW
  • 2 John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, NSW
  • 3 Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW


Competing interests:

No relevant disclosures.


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