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International treatment guidelines for anaemia in chronic kidney disease — what has changed?

Robert J MacGinley and Rowan G Walker
Med J Aust 2013; 199 (2): 84-85. || doi: 10.5694/mja13.10538

Balancing the risks and benefits of erythropoietin-stimulating agents and iron therapy

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  • Robert J MacGinley1
  • Rowan G Walker2

  • 1 Deakin Medical School, Geelong, VIC.
  • 2 Department of Renal Medicine, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, VIC.


Competing interests:

No relevant disclosures.

  • 1. Kidney Health Australia. Key chronic kidney disease (CKD) statistics in Australia. http://www.kidney.org.au/HealthProfessionals/CKDinAustralia/ tabid/622/Default.aspx (accessed May 2013).
  • 2. Razavian M, Heeley EL, Perkovic V, et al. Cardiovascular risk management in chronic kidney disease in general practice (the AusHEART study). Nephrol Dial Transplant 2012; 27: 1396-1402.
  • 3. Mercadal L, Metzger M, Casadevall, et al. Timing and determinants of erythropoietin deficiency in chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2012; 7: 35-42.
  • 4. Goldsmith D. 2009: a requiem for rHuEPOs – but should we nail down the coffin in 2010? Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 5: 929-935.
  • 5. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Anemia Work Group. KDIGO clinical practice guideline for anemia in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int Suppl 2012; 4: 279-335.
  • 6. MacGinley R, Walker R, Irving M. KHA-CARI Guidelines. Use of iron in chronic kidney disease patients [draft]. August 2012. http://www.cari.org.au/DIALYSIS_bht_published/DRAFT_Iron_18_March_2013.pdf (accessed Apr 2013).
  • 7. McMahon L, MacGinley R. KHA-CARI Guidelines. Biochemical and haematological targets: haemoglobin levels in patients using erythropoiesis stimulating agents. October 2011. http://www.cari.org.au/DIALYSIS_bht_published/KHA_CARI_Anaemia_guidelines_November_%202011.pdf (accessed Apr 2013).
  • 8. Besarab A, Bolton WK, Browne JK, et al. The effects of normal as compared with low hematocrit values in patients with cardiac disease who are receiving hemodialysis and epoetin. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 584-590.
  • 9. Pfeffer MA, Burdmann EA, Chen CY, et al; TREAT Investigators. A trial of darbepoetin alfa in type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. N Engl J Med 2009; 361: 2019-2032.
  • 10. Palmer SC, Navaneethan SD, Craig JC, et al. Meta-analysis: erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in patients with chronic kidney disease. Ann Intern Med 2010; 153: 23-33.

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