Bell and pad alarm therapy appears to be an effective treatment for nocturnal enuresis in children, according to Australian researchers. Designed to condition the child to recognise a full bladder, the alarm sounds when the sleeping child releases urine onto a pad. A questionnaire was sent to 240 affected children and their parents, and results showed that the initial response rate to bell and pad therapy was 84%, with a relapse rate of 30%. Better outcomes were associated with female sex, shorter duration of treatment, the child’s willingness to use therapy, and a lack of diurnal symptoms. The success rate of repeat therapy was high (78%) and the average length of repeat treatment was 10 weeks. The authors comment that their findings may help clinicians identify children who may need different approaches to treatment.