A small pilot trial conducted in Taiwan has suggested that stem cell therapy may have a place in the future treatment of ischaemic stroke.1 Shyu and colleagues allocated at random 10 patients who presented within 7 days of acute cerebral infarction localised within the middle cerebral artery territory to receive either 5 days of subcutaneous injections of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) or usual care. Six months later, the seven patients who received G-CSF showed a greater improvement in neurological functioning. Four patients who started treatment within 1 day after onset of cerebral ischaemia showed the greatest improvement.
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