Pandemics, antiviral stockpiles and biosecurity in Australia: what about the generic option?

Buddhima Lokuge, Peter Drahos and Warwick Neville
Med J Aust 2006; 184 (1): 16-20.


  • In view of the possibility of a human pandemic of avian influenza, a first-line strategy for many countries is stockpiling of antiviral neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir [Tamiflu] and zanamivir [Relenza]), which can reduce mortality, morbidity and influenza transmission.

  • However, global supply of the antivirals is controlled by the European-based patent owners, Roche and GlaxoSmithKline. This prevents competition in the manufacturing and distribution of antivirals and has reduced global supply capacity and affordability.

  • The Australian Government has acknowledged that, in the event of a pandemic, its own stockpile of antivirals will be limited and reserved for those on a confidential rationing list. Pharmacies are running out of stocks, limiting opportunities for individuals to secure supplies privately.

  • Compulsory licensing provisions, permitted under domestic patent law, would allow Australian generic manufacturers to start producing antivirals locally or import them from generic producers at affordable prices.

  • Australia also has an opportunity and a responsibility to promote compulsory licensing and generic antiviral production in the Asian region, to ensure our neighbours can establish pandemic stockpiles in a timely and affordable manner.

Please login with your free MJA account to view this article in full

  • Buddhima Lokuge1
  • Peter Drahos2
  • Warwick Neville3

  • 1 Medical School, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT.
  • 2 Centre for Governance of Knowledge and Development, Regulatory Institutions Network, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT.



Buddhima Lokuge has received financial support from the Australian Research Council grant titled “The impact of international trade agreements on the regulation and provision of medicines in Australia”. The Australian Research Council had no input into the writing of this article.

Competing interests:

None identified.


remove_circle_outline Delete Author
add_circle_outline Add Author

Do you have any competing interests to declare? *

I/we agree to assign copyright to the Medical Journal of Australia and agree to the Conditions of publication *
I/we agree to the Terms of use of the Medical Journal of Australia *
Email me when people comment on this article

Responses are now closed for this article.