In reply: We thank Blacker for his constructive and helpful comments. Our recommendations on bridging therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation were for patients with chronic atrial fibrillation who had not previously had a thromboembolic event.1 We do agree with Blacker that extreme care needs to be exercised in patients with atrial fibrillation and a previous thromboembolism. These patients should be managed along the same lines as patients who are at relatively high risk of recurrent thromboembolism. We also wish to emphasise that it is extremely important to assess each individual patient carefully, and to use the consensus guidelines as guiding principles, and not apply them blindly.
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