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Passive smoking and breast cancer: is the evidence for cause now convincing?

J Mark Elwood and Robert C Burton
Med J Aust 2004; 181 (5): 236-237.

It all depends on which studies you emphasise

J Mark Elwood, MD, DSc, Director
Robert C Burton, MD, PhD, Senior Advisor
National Cancer Control Initiative, Melbourne, VIC.
Article References: 
Reference Text: 
Burton RC, Sulaiman N. Active and passive cigarette smoking and breast cancer: is a real risk emerging? Med J Aust 2000; 172: 550-552.
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PubMed ID: 
10920754
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California Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Health effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Final report. Sacramento, Calif: California EPA, 1997. Available at: www.oehha.org/air/environmental_tobacco/finalets.html (accessed Jul 2004).
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California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board. Proposed identification of environmental tobacco smoke as a toxic air contaminant. Part B: Health effects. Chapter 7: Carcinogenic effects. Sacramento, Calif: California EPA, 2003. Available at: www.arb.ca.gov/toxics/ets/dreport/dreport.htm (accessed Jul 2004).
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Morabia A, Bernstein M. A review of the relation of active and passive smoking to breast cancer. J Women’s Cancer 2000; 2: 1-9.
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Khuder SA, Simon VJ Jr. Is there an association between passive smoking and breast cancer? Eur J Epidemiol 2000; 16: 1117-1121.
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PubMed ID: 
11484800
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Lash TL, Aschengrau A. Active and passive cigarette smoking and the occurrence of breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1999; 149: 5-12.
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Egan KM, Stampfer MJ, Hunter D, et al. Active and passive smoking in breast cancer: prospective results from the Nurses’ Health Study. Epidemiology 2002; 13: 138-145.
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PubMed ID: 
11880753
Reference Text: 
Reynolds P, Hurley S, Goldberg DE, et al. Active smoking, household passive smoking, and breast cancer: evidence from the California Teachers Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 2004; 96: 29-37.
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PubMed ID: 
14709736
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Morabia A. Smoking (active and passive) and breast cancer: epidemiologic evidence up to June 2001. Environ Mol Mutagen 2002; 39: 89-95.
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PubMed ID: 
11921174
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Band PR, Le ND, Fang R, Deschamps M. Carcinogenic and endocrine disrupting effects of cigarette smoke and risk of breast cancer. Lancet 2002; 360: 1044-1049.
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PubMed ID: 
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Conway K, Edmiston SN, Cui L, et al. Prevalence and spectrum of p53 mutations associated with smoking in breast cancer. Cancer Res 2002; 62: 1987-1995.
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PubMed ID: 
11929815
Reference Text: 
Chang-Claude J, Kropp S, Jager B, et al. Differential effect of NAT2 on the association between active and passive smoke exposure and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002; 11: 698-704.
Reference Order: 
12
PubMed ID: 
12163321
Reference Text: 
Chaturvedi P. Does smoking increase the risk of breast cancer? Lancet Oncol 2003; 4: 657-658.
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PubMed ID: 
14602244
Reference Text: 
IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk to Humans. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol 83: Tobacco smoke and involuntary smoking. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2004.
Reference Order: 
14

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