In reply: Our article1 outlined evidence presented to the Supreme Court of New South Wales. The paucity of epidemiological evidence concerning an association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and laryngeal cancer (two studies available) was offset by biological plausibility concerning the carcinogenicity of tobacco smoke. To that extent, the epidemiological evidence in question "supported" a clear inference of causality from other data. The views offered by Langlands and Gebski do not alter this consideration, and are otherwise without merit for several reasons.
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