Connect
MJA

Why proper understanding of confidence intervals and statistical significance is important: COVID-19 randomised trials as a case in point

Monica Taljaard and Karla Hemming
Med J Aust
Published online: 16 July 2020

This is a preprint version of an article submitted for publication in the Medical Journal of Australia. Changes may be made before final publication. Click here for the PDF version. Suggested citation: Taljaard m, hEMMING k. Why proper understanding of confidence intervals and statistical significance is important: COVID-19 randomised trials as a case in point. Med J Aust 2020; https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2020/why-proper-understanding-confidence-intervals-and-statistical-significance-important [Preprint, 16 July 2020].

Abstract

Statistically non-significant findings are often misinterpreted as evidence that there is no difference in effectiveness between two interventions. Despite this fallacy being widely known and accepted, it unfortunately persists as a widespread phenomenon.

To illustrate why correct interpretation of statistical significance and confidence intervals is crucial to good evidence-based medicine we use two topical case studies. The first case study concerns the question of whether N95 respirators are more effective than medical masks in preventing respiratory infections when used by health care providers. This question was assessed by a pragmatic well conducted cluster randomised trial that reported in 2019, designed to determine if the efficacy of the N95 respirator in controlled settings could be maintained in real life, where compliance may be sub-optimal. The trial reported a non-significant finding which it interpreted as “no significant difference”. However, despite being non-significant, the confidence interval for the primary outcome rules out anything but a small possibility of any clinically important benefit of the N95 respirator, and in fact supports more that the N95 respirator might be associated with a small amount of harm. Our second case study concerns the question of whether Lopinavir-Ritonavir provides any treatment benefit in patients with severe Covid-19. This question was assessed by a small single centre open label randomised trial. The trial reported non-significant findings which it interpreted as “no difference” or “no benefit”. In fact confidence interval for the primary and other important secondary outcomes are so wide they include the possibility of real benefit.

Our examples are topical and reiterate that correct interpretation of results from statistical significance testing is crucial. Firstly, a large pragmatic trial does not only not support the general use of the N95 respirator in clinical practice, but appeared to show it was associated with some increase in risk. Secondly, a small highly prominent randomised trial of a potential treatment (Lopinavir-Ritonavir) for patients with severe Covid-19 is compatible with the possibility of benefit, and the treatment deserves more research. These examples represent what is typical in the wider literature – inconsistent and inaccurate interpretation of statistical significance and confidence intervals. They serve to illustrate the point of why correct interpretation is crucial to evidence-based medicine.

Background

Guidelines for reporting results from randomised trials have long underscored the importance of confidence intervals [Rothman 1978]. Confidence intervals are informative as they show the likely range of effect sizes supported by the findings, whereas p-values dichotomise the findings based on statistical significance at an arbitrary cut-off [Jones 2017]. Reviews of contemporary trials reveal that researchers mostly adhere to this advice [Hays 2016]. Despite this, misinterpretation stubbornly persists [Gewandter 2017]. Firstly, many trials are interpreting absence of evidence as evidence of no effect, concluding an intervention is ineffective when in fact the results suggest its effectiveness is uncertain. Secondly, in some trials it might be correct to conclude that a treatment is effective (or harmful), despite the non-statistically significant result; yet researchers persist in unhelpful language such as “not statistically significant”.

Thus whilst researchers are abiding by reporting guidelines and including confidence intervals, these are rarely fully interpreted in the conclusions (i.e. researchers are not abiding by the philosophy underpinning the reason for the guidelines). It is this paradox that led to recent campaigns demanding appropriate interpretation of confidence intervals [Ronald 2016, Greenland 2019]. Despite availability of publications addressing the statistical philosophy underpinning hypothesis testing, there is a dearth of practical guidelines for investigators, reviewers and editors in correct interpretation of findings from randomised controlled trials.

Here we provide a practical guide [see Box 1 - available in PDF], bridging the gap between statistical philosophy and the desire to draw conclusive findings from most trials. To this end, we provide recommendations for the interpretation of the primary outcome result, where we urge interpretation of the full range of the confidence interval and its overlap with effect sizes considered to be clinically important. Whilst we advocate for a more holistic interpretation considering contextual factors, we urge for transparency in these arguments. We illustrate these recommendations using two topical case studies [see Box 2 and 3 - available in PDF].

Practical guide

Interpreting a confidence interval

The imperfect nature of any approach to hypothesis testing is now widely recognised [Jones 2017]. One approach, advocated by Neyman-Person, uses an objective but arbitrary cut-point (usually a p-value of 0.05) for statistical significance. Fisher on the other-hand, argued for an approach based on a continuum with no set threshold, also arguing for the consideration of other contextual factors. Yet neither approach acknowledges the importance of the size of any treatment effect. Focus thus shifted to the reporting of confidence intervals [Schulz 2010]. The confidence interval can be interpreted as providing a range of treatment effects supported by the study. Not all values within the interval are equally supported: those closer to the point estimate have more support and support tapers the closer to the bounds of the interval.

When interpreting confidence intervals in relation to clinically important effect sizes (see below), primary outcome results can be directive despite not being statistically significant. This can arise when the confidence interval excludes a clinically meaningful benefit (or harm) (Figure 1, row 2). Directive, yet not statistically significant results, can also arise when the confidence interval mostly overlaps with values indicative of benefit (or harm), i.e., when the interval covers treatment effects mostly in one direction (Figure 1, row 1 and 3). In reality statistically non-significant results can also arise in situations where the confidence interval is wide and includes treatment effects that are both beneficial and harmful. Such results should be interpreted as inconclusive (Figure1, row 4). The primary outcome in the ResPECT trial (Box 2 - available in PDF) is an example of a statistically non-significant primary outcome, but which probably rules out any meaningful benefit, whereas the outcome mortality in the Lopinavir–Ritonavir trial (Box 3 - available in PDF) is an example of a statistically non-significant result which is probably inconclusive.  

Clinically important treatment effects

Confidence intervals need to be interpreted with an understanding of what are clinically important changes in outcomes – referred to as clinically important treatment effects. The notion of the minimum clinically important effect size (i.e. the smallest effect size that is thought to be of any clinical importance) will be familiar to many researchers. Ideally, the sample size should be based on being adequately powered to detect this effect size [Cook 2018]. However, given the nature of research which is often constrained by limited budgets and resources, sample size calculations are often based on effect sizes that are thought to be achievable or that yield a feasible sample size [Hislop 2014]. Secondly, the minimally clincially important difference in a superiority trial is related to the non-inferiority or equivalence margin considered in non-inferiority or equivalence trials [Dun 2018]. Minimum clinically important effect sizes thus inform what a clinically important effect is.  Ideally what constitutes a clinically important effect should be pre-specified, well justified and include opinions of both clinicians and patients [McGlothlin 2014]. Moreover, it should not be taken as absolute and should be interpreted on a continuum. For trials that evaluate effects on outcomes such as mortality, any positive effect of the intervention (however small) might be clinically important. Reporting results on the absolute scale, perhaps as a number needed to treat, can aid in interpretation of clinical importance [Laupacis 1998]. No minimally important clinical differences were specified in either of the two case studies considered here, but in both examples we use logical reasoning to consider what plausible smallest important differences might be (see Box 2 and 3 - available in PDF).

Importance of informative conclusions

In almost all situations a technically correct conclusion of “statistically not-significant” is unhelpful. Those in need of information, wish to know whether the findings are inconclusive (more research is required) or whether the trial can be directive in its conclusions. Both case studies are statistically not-significant for their primary outcomes, however concluding “not-significant” in the study conclusions is unhelpful. Despite being statistically not-significant the primary outcome result from the ResPECT trial suggests there is probably no benefit from the N95 respirator; moreover the confidence interval also covers regions which might be considered as clinically important increases in risk. However, when considering the full range of treatment effects supported by the confidence intervals for both primary and secondary outcomes for the Lopinavir–Ritonavir trial we see that the results are compatible with both benefit and harm; and this result is therefore inconclusive.

Holistic interpretation

There are of course many considerations, other than the primary outcome result. First and foremost it is necessary to consider the robustness of the trial design, risks of bias, and generalisability. Both the ResPECT trial and the Lopinavir–Ritonavir trial appear to be free from any obvious bias. Whilst the interpretation of the trial findings should focus on the result of the primary outcome, other contextual factors are important. These might include secondary outcomes, harms, costs, and evidence from other trials. This more holistic interpretation is endorsed by the CONSORT statement [Schulz 2010].

In the case of N95 respirators, the community wishes to know whether N95 respirators, which are more expensive and uncomfortable to wear, provide any extra benefit over medical masks. Concluding any risk of harm from the N95 respirator mask appears counter-intuitive, but might be a reflection of risk compensation. Moreover, given this suggestion of increased risk appears only at the extreme tail of the confidence interval it might reflect random chance. If the N95 respirator is truly compatible with harm, the secondary outcomes would likely have shown that signal too. In fact, all of the secondary outcomes seemed to indicate either no effect or a likely protective effect. Thus a reasonable interpretation based on the primary outcomes is thus that N95 respirators probably provide no added protection. The primary outcome result for the Lopinavir–Ritonavir trial is uncertain; other outcomes were also mostly uncertain. Evidence from other trials was rapidly evolving, but none pointed convincingly to any suggestion that Lopinavir–Ritonavir could be abandoned as an ineffective treatment, at least not just yet.

Summary

Evidence-based medicine requires careful execution of randomised trials, of high internal validity and high generalisability. A growing body of literature on the conduct and reporting of randomised trials warns against such things as manipulation of outcome selection, multiplicity of analyses and provides guidelines on good practice, such as pre-trial registration. Increasingly investigators are adhering to this advice. Yet, investigators, reviewers and editors are still falling foul of correct interpretation of statistically non-significant results. Clinical interpretation of trial results needs to shift to being centred on whether the results (i.e. values supported by the confidence intervals) are consistent with a clinically important effect.

Pre-specification and justification of clinically important effect sizes should become the norm. Minimally important effect sizes have been a feature of sample size calculations especially in non-inferiority trials, but they are fundamental for the interpretation of all randomised trials. Although there is as yet no consensus on how to determine these values, it does not mean this issue can be ignored. Reporting on absolute scales is almost certainly helpful here.

The interpretation of the primary outcome result is not the only consideration when determining the final conclusions. There may, for example, be side effects from treatments, cost considerations or issues of over treatment or invasiveness and secondary supportive outcomes. These other considerations might lend support to an overall conclusion that the treatment is unlikely to be beneficial, despite a non-significant finding. However, it is crucial that there is transparency in how this conclusion is reached.

Clear and conclusive findings are more appealing to journal editors and to their readership. Sometimes, but not always, trials which are statistically not significant can still be directive. Unfortunately, many trials ultimately end up being uncertain simply because they are too small. Trials undoubtedly need larger sample sizes to reduce uncertainty and to ensure they are powered to detect clinically important effect sizes [Rothwell 2018].

References

[Bender 2001] Bender R. Calculating Confidence Intervals for the Number Needed to Treat. Controlled Clinical Trials 22:102–110; 2001.

[Cao 2020] Cao B, Wang Y, Wen D, et al. A trial of lopinavir–ritonavir in adults hospitalized with severe Covid-19. N Engl J Med. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001282.

[Cook 2018] Cook JA, Julious SA, Sones W, Hampson LV, Hewitt C, Berlin JA, Ashby D, Emsley R, Fergusson DA, Walters SJ, Wilson ECF, Maclennan G, Stallard N, Rothwell JC, Bland M, Brown L, Ramsay CR, Cook A, Armstrong D, Altman D, Vale LD. DELTA(2) guidance on choosing the target difference and undertaking and reporting the sample size calculation for a randomised controlled trial. Trials. 2018 Nov 5;19(1):606.

[Dunn 2018] Dunn DT, Copas AJ, Brocklehurst P. Superiority and non-inferiority: two sides of the same coin? Trials. 2018 Sep 17;19(1):499.

[Gewandter 2017] Gewandter JS, McDermott MP, Kitt RA, Chaudari J, Koch JG, Evans SR, Gross RA,  Markman JD, Turk DC, Dworkin RH. Interpretation of CIs in clinical trials with non-significant results: systematic review and recommendations. BMJ Open. 2017 Jul 18;7(7):e017288. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017288. Review. PubMed PMID: 28720618; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5726092.

[Greenland 2019] Amrhein V, Greenland S, McShane B. Scientists rise up against statistical significance. Nature. 2019 Mar;567(7748):305-307. doi: 10.1038/d41586-019-00857-9.

[Hays 2016] Hays M, Andrews M, Wilson R, Callender D, O'Malley PG, Douglas K. Reporting quality of randomised controlled trial abstracts among high-impact general medical journals: a review and analysis. BMJ Open. 2016 Jul 28;6(7):e011082. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011082. PubMed PMID: 27470506; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4985789.

[Hislop 2014] Hislop J, Adewuyi TE, Vale LD, Harrild K, Fraser C, Gurung T, Altman DG, Briggs AH, Fayers P, Ramsay CR, Norrie JD, Harvey IM, Buckley B, Cook JA; DELTA group. Methods for specifying the target difference in a randomised controlled trial: the Difference ELicitation in TriAls (DELTA) systematic review. PLoS Med.  2014 May 13;11(5):e1001645. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001645. eCollection 2014 May. Review. PubMed PMID: 24824338; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4019477.

[Jones 2017] Jones MP,  Beath A, Oldmeadow C and Attia JR. Understanding statistical hypothesis tests and power, Med J Aust 2017; 207 (4):  doi: 10.5694/mja16.01022

[Laupacis 1998] Laupacis A, Sackett DL, Roberts RS. An assessment of clinically useful measures of the consequences of treatment. N Engl J Med. 1988 Jun 30;318(26):1728-33.

[McGlothlin 2014] McGlothlin AE, Lewis RJ. Minimal clinically important difference: defining what really matters to patients. JAMA. 2014 Oct 1;312(13):1342-3. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.13128.

[Radonovich 2019] Radonovich LJ Jr, Simberkoff MS, Bessesen MT, Brown AC, Cummings DAT, Gaydos CA, Los JG, Krosche AE, Gibert CL, Gorse GJ, Nyquist AC, Reich NG, Rodriguez-Barradas MC, Price CS, Perl TM; ResPECT investigators. N95 Respirators  vs Medical Masks for Preventing Influenza Among Health Care Personnel: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2019 Sep 3;322(9):824-833.

[Ronald 2016] Ronald L. Wasserstein & Nicole A. Lazar (2016) The ASA Statement on p-Values: Context, Process, and Purpose, The American Statistician, 70:2, 129-133, DOI: 10.1080/00031305.2016.1154108

[Rothman 1978] Rothman KJ. A show of confidence. N Engl J Med 1978;299:1362–3.

[Rothwell 2018] Rothwell JC, Julious SA, Cooper CL. A study of target effect sizes in randomised controlled trials published in the Health Technology Assessment journal. Trials. 2018 Oct 10;19(1):544.

[Schulz 2010] Schulz KF, Altman DG, Moher D; CONSORT Group. CONSORT 2010 statement: updated  guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. BMJ. 2010 Mar 23;340:c332. doi: 10.1136/bmj.c332.

 

  • Monica Taljaard1
  • Karla Hemming2

  • 1 Ottawa Hospital Research Institute
  • 2 University of Birmingham

Correspondence: 

Author

remove_circle_outline Delete Author
add_circle_outline Add Author

Comment
Do you have any competing interests to declare? *

I/we agree to assign copyright to the Medical Journal of Australia and agree to the Conditions of publication *
I/we agree to the Terms of use of the Medical Journal of Australia *
Email me when people comment on this article

Online responses are no longer available. Please refer to our instructions for authors page for more information.