Practical neurology Part 7 - Recurrent headaches with visual disturbance

Alessandro S Zagami and Sian L Goddard
Med J Aust 2012; 196 (3): 178-183. || doi: 10.5694/mja11.11533
  • Alessandro S Zagami1,2
  • Sian L Goddard1

  • 1 Institute of Neurological Sciences, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, NSW.
  • 2 Prince of Wales Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW.


Competing interests:

Alessandro Zagami receives financial support from the National Health and Medical Research Council and the Australian Brain Foundation.

  • 1. International Headache Society. IHS Classification ICHD-II. (accessed Feb 2012).
  • 2. Lipton RB, Silberstein SD, Dodick DW. Overview of diagnosis and classification. In: Silberstein SD, Lipton RB, Dodick DW, editors. Wolff's headache and other head pain. 8th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008: 29-43.
  • 3. Silberstein SD. Migraine. Lancet 2004; 363: 381-391.
  • 4. Lance JW, Goadsby PJ. Mechanism and management of headache. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2005.
  • 5. Goadsby PJ. Pathophysiology of migraine. Neurologic Clinics 2009; 27: 335-360.
  • 6. Zagami AS, Bahra A. Symptomatology of migraines without aura. In: Olesen J, Goadsby PJ, Ramadan NM, et al, editors. The headaches. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Williams, 2006: 399-405.
  • 7. Collins PY, Patel V. Grand challenges in global mental health. Nature 2011; 475: 27-30.
  • 8. Cohen AS, Burns B, Goadsby PJ. High-flow oxygen for treatment of cluster headache: a randomized trial. JAMA 2009; 302: 2451-2457.
  • 9. May A, Leone M, Afra J, et al. EFNS guidelines on the treatment of cluster headache and other trigeminal-autonomic cephalalgias. Eur J Neurol 2006; 13: 1066-1077.
  • 10. Olesen J, Bousser M-G, Diener H-C, et al. New appendix criteria open for a broader concept of chronic migraine. Cephalalgia 2006; 26: 742-746.
  • 11. Vargas BB, Dodick DW. The face of chronic migraine: epidemiology, demographics, and treatment strategies. Neurol Clin 2009; 27: 467-479.
  • 12. Blumenfeld AM, Varon SF, Wilcox TK, et al. Disability, HRQoL and resource use among chronic and episodic migraineurs: results from the International Burden of Migraine Study (IBMS). Cephalalgia 2011; 31: 301-315.
  • 13. Silberstein SD, Olesen J, Bousser M-G, et al. The international classification of headache disorders, 2nd edition (ICDH-II) — revision of criteria for 8.2 Medication-overuse headache. Cephalalgia 2005; 25: 460-465.
  • 14. Schurks M, Rist P, Bigal M, et al. Migraine and cardiovascular disease: systemic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2009; 339: b3914.
  • 15. Kurth T, Chabrait H, Bousser M-G. Migraine and stroke: a complex association with clinical implications. Lancet Neurol 2012; 11: 92-100.
  • 16. Goadsby PJ, Sprenger T. Current practice and future directions in the prevention and acute management of migraine. Lancet Neurol 2010; 9: 285-298.
  • 17. Neurology Expert Group. Therapeutic guidelines: neurology. Version 4. Melbourne: Therapeutic Guidelines, 2011: 1-264.
  • 18. Sun-Edelstein C, Mauskop A. Alternative headache treatments: neutraceuticals, behavioural and physical treatments. Headache 2011; 51: 469-483.
  • 19. Martin PR, MacLeod C. Behavioral management of headache triggers: avoidance of triggers is an inadequate strategy. Clin Psychol Rev 2009; 29: 483-495.
  • 20. Magis D, Schoenen J. Treatment of migraine: update on new therapies. Curr Opin Neurol 2011; 24: 203-210.
  • 21. Evers S, Afra J, Frese A, et al. EFNS guideline on the drug treatment of migraine-revised report of an EFNS task force. Eur J Neurol 2009; 16: 968-981.
  • 22. Stark RJ, Stark CD. Migraine prophylaxis. Med J Aust 2008; 189: 283-288. <MJA full text>
  • 23. Fenstermacher N, Levin M, Ward T. Pharmacological prevention of migraine. BMJ 2011; 342: d583.
  • 24. Aurora SK, Winner P, Freeman MC, et al. OnabotulinumtoxinA for treatment of chronic migraine: pooled analyses of the 56-week PREEMPT clinical program. Headache 2011; 51: 1358-1373.
  • 25. Diener H-C, Gaul C, Jensen R, et al. Integrated headache care. Cephalalgia 2011; 31: 1039-1047.


remove_circle_outline Delete Author
add_circle_outline Add Author

Do you have any competing interests to declare? *

I/we agree to assign copyright to the Medical Journal of Australia and agree to the Conditions of publication *
I/we agree to the Terms of use of the Medical Journal of Australia *
Email me when people comment on this article

Responses are now closed for this article.