Connect
MJA
MJA

A comparison of the mental health of refugees with temporary versus permanent protection visas

Shakeh Momartin, Zachary Steel, Marianio Coello, Jorge Aroche, Derrick M Silove and Robert Brooks
Med J Aust 2006; 185 (7): 357-361.
  • Shakeh Momartin1
  • Zachary Steel2
  • Marianio Coello1
  • Jorge Aroche1
  • Derrick M Silove2
  • Robert Brooks2

  • 1 Service for the Treatment and Rehabilitation of Torture and Trauma Survivors (STARTTS), Sydney, NSW.
  • 2 Psychiatry Research and Teaching Unit, School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney; and Centre for Population Mental Health Research, Sydney South West Area Health Service, Sydney, NSW.

Correspondence: z.steel@unsw.edu.au

Acknowledgements: 

This study was supported by an Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Program Grant 300403.

Competing interests:

None identified.

  • 1. Silove D, Steel Z, Watters C. Policies of deterrence and the mental health of asylum seekers in Western countries. JAMA 2000; 284: 604-611.
  • 2. Report of an own motion investigation into the Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs’ immigration detention centres. Canberra: Commonwealth Ombudsman, 2001. http://www.ombudsman.gov.au/commonwealth/publish.nsf/AttachmentsByTitle/reports_2001_dima_idc.pdf/$FILE/IDCMarch1.pdf (accessed Aug 2006).
  • 3. Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission. A last resort? Report of the National Inquiry into Children in Immigration Detention. Sydney: HREOC, 2004. http://www.hreoc.gov.au/human_rights/children_detention/index.html (accessed Aug 2006).
  • 4. Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade. Completed Inquiry: visits to immigration detention centres. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia, 2001.
  • 5. Koutroulis G. Detained asylum seekers, health care, and questions of human(e)ness. Aust N Z J Public Health 2003; 27: 381-384.
  • 6. Mares S, Jureidini J. Psychiatric assessment of children and families in immigration detention: clinical, administrative and ethical issues. Aust N Z J Public Health 2004; 28: 520-526.
  • 7. Mares S, Newman L, Dudley M, Gale F. Seeking refuge, losing hope: parents and children in immigration detention. Australas Psychiatry 2002; 10: 91-96.
  • 8. Ruddock P. Asylum seekers and healthcare [letter]. Med J Aust 2002; 176: 85. <MJA full text>
  • 9. Australian Medical Association. Asylum seekers should have access to quality health services under Medicare. Media release. 8 August 2001. http://www.ama.com.au/web.nsf/doc/WEEN-5GB46R (accessed Aug 2006).
  • 10. Steel Z, Silove D. The mental health implications of detaining asylum seekers. Med J Aust 2001; 175: 596-599. <MJA full text>
  • 11. Steel Z, Momartin S, Bateman C, et al. Psychiatric status of asylum seeker families held for a protracted period in a remote detention centre in Australia. Aust N Z J Public Health 2004; 28: 23-32.
  • 12. Sultan A, O’Sullivan K. Psychological disturbances in asylum seekers held in long term detention: a participant-observer account. Med J Aust 2001; 175: 593-596. <MJA full text>
  • 13. Keller AS, Rosenfeld B, Trinh-Shevrin C, et al. Mental health of detained asylum seekers. Lancet 2003; 362: 1721-1723.
  • 14. Steel Z, Silove DM, Phan T, Bauman A. The long-term impact of trauma on the mental health of Vietnamese refugees resettled in Australia: a population-based study. Lancet 2002; 360: 1056-1062.
  • 15. Australian Government Department of Immigration, Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs. Settler arrivals 1993-94 to 2003-04. Canberra: DIMIA 2004.
  • 16. Mollica RF, Caspi-Yavin Y, Bollini P, et al. The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Validating a cross-cultural instrument for measuring torture, trauma, and posttraumatic stress disorder in Indochinese refugees. J Nerv Ment Dis 1992; 180: 111-116.
  • 17. Mollica RF, Wyshak G, de Marneffe D, et al. Indochinese versions of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25: a screening instrument for the psychiatric care of refugees. Am J Psychiatry 1987; 144: 497-500.
  • 18. Goldberg DP, Williams P. A user’s guide to the General Health Questionnaire. Windsor: NFER-NELSON, 1988.
  • 19. Gandek B, Ware JE, Aaronson NK, et al. Cross-validation of item selection and scoring for the SF-12 Health Survey in nine countries: results from the IQOLA Project. International Quality of Life Assessment. J Clin Epidemiol 1998; 51: 1171-1178.
  • 20. Silove D, Sinnerbrink I, Field A, et al. Anxiety, depression and PTSD in asylum seekers: associations with pre-migration trauma and post-migration stressors. Br J Psychiatry 1997; 170: 351-357.
  • 21. Silove D, Steel Z, McGorry P, Mohan P. Psychiatric symptoms and living difficulties in Tamil asylum seekers: comparisons with refugees and immigrants. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1998; 97: 175-181.
  • 22. Steel Z, Silove D, Brooks R, et al. The impact of immigration detention and temporary protection on the mental health of refugees. Br J Psychiatry 2006; 188: 58-64.
  • 23. Bontempo R. Translation fidelity of psychological scales: an item response theory analysis of an individualism-collectivism scale. J Cross Cult Psychol 1993; 24: 149-166.
  • 24. Harris PJ. A primer of multivariate statistics. 2nd ed. Orlando: Academic Press, 1985.
  • 25. Belsley DA, Kuh E, Welsch RE. Regression diagnostics: identifying influential data and sources of collinearity. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1980.
  • 26. Ichikawa M, Nakahara S, Wakai S. Effect of post-migration detention on mental health among Afghan asylum seekers in Japan. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2006; 40: 341-346.
  • 27. Silove D, Coello M, Tang K, et al. Towards a researcher-advocacy model for asylum seekers: a pilot study among East Timorese living in Australia. Transcult Psychiatry 2002; 39: 452-468.
  • 28. Silove DM, Steel Z, Susljik I, et al. Torture, mental health status and the outcomes of refugee applications among recently arrived asylum seekers in Australia. Int J Migration Health Soc Care 2006; 2: 4-14.
  • 29. Porter M, Haslam N. Predisplacement and postdisplacement factors associated with mental health of refugees and internally displaced persons: a meta-analysis. JAMA 2005; 294: 602-612.
  • 30. Cardozo BL, Vergara A, Agani F, Gotway CA. Mental health, social functioning and attitudes of Kosovar Albanians following the war in Kosovo. JAMA 2000; 284: 569-577.
  • 31. de Jong JT, Komproe IH, Van Ommeren M, et al. Lifetime events and posttraumatic stress disorder in 4 postconflict settings. JAMA 2001; 286: 555-562.
  • 32. Mollica RF, McInnes K, Sarajlic N, et al. Disability associated with psychiatric comorbidity and health status in Bosnian refugees living in Croatia. JAMA 1999; 282: 433-439.
  • 33. Shrestha NM, Sharma B, Van Ommeren M, et al. Impact of torture on refugees displaced within the developing world: symptomatology among Bhutanese refugees in Nepal. JAMA 1998; 280: 443-448.

Author

remove_circle_outline Delete Author
add_circle_outline Add Author

Comment
Do you have any competing interests to declare? *

I/we agree to assign copyright to the Medical Journal of Australia and agree to the Conditions of publication *
I/we agree to the Terms of use of the Medical Journal of Australia *
Email me when people comment on this article

Responses are now closed for this article.