4. Food allergy in childhood

Katrina J Allen, David J Hill and Ralf G Heine
Med J Aust 2006; 185 (7): 394-400.
  • Katrina J Allen1,2,3
  • David J Hill2
  • Ralf G Heine1,2,3

  • 1 Department of Allergy and Immunology, Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne, VIC.
  • 2 Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne, VIC.
  • 3 Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC.


Competing interests:

David Hill has received support for clinical research projects from SHS/Nutricia and presented lectures at sponsored meetings.

  • 1. Hill DJ, Hosking CS, Heine RG. Clinical spectrum of food allergy in children in Australia and South-East Asia: identification and targets for treatment. Ann Med 1999; 31: 272-281.
  • 2. Heine RG. Gastroesophageal reflux disease, colic and constipation in infants with food allergy. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 6: 220-225.
  • 3. Sampson HA. 9. Food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003; 111 (2 Suppl): S540-S547.
  • 4. Grundy J, Matthews S, Bateman B, et al. Rising prevalence of allergy to peanut in children: data from 2 sequential cohorts. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002; 110: 784-789.
  • 5. Schafer T, Bohler E, Ruhdorfer S, et al. Epidemiology of food allergy/food intolerance in adults: associations with other manifestations of atopy. Allergy 2001; 56: 1172-1179.
  • 6. Vila L, Beyer K, Jarvinen KM, et al. Role of conformational and linear epitopes in the achievement of tolerance in cow’s milk allergy. Clin Exp Allergy 2001; 31: 1599-1606.
  • 7. American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement: guidelines for the evaluation of food allergies. Gastroenterology 2001; 120: 1023-1025.
  • 8. Host A, Halken S, Jacobsen HP, et al. Clinical course of cow’s milk protein allergy/intolerance and atopic diseases in childhood. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2002; 13 Suppl 15: 23-28.
  • 9. Saarinen KM, Pelkonen AS, Makela MJ, Savilahti E. Clinical course and prognosis of cow’s milk allergy are dependent on milk-specific IgE status. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005; 116: 869-875.
  • 10. Chang JW, Wu TC, Wang KS, et al. Colon mucosal pathology in infants under three months of age with diarrhea disorders. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2002; 35: 387-390.
  • 11. Lake AM. Dietary protein enterocolitis. Curr Allergy Rep 2001; 1: 76-79.
  • 12. Nowak-Wegrzyn A, Sampson HA, Wood RA, Sicherer SH. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome caused by solid food proteins. Pediatrics 2003; 111 (4 Pt 1): 829-835.
  • 13. Kakakios A, Heine RG. Eosinophilic oesophagitis. Med J Aust 2006; 185: 401. <eMJA full text>
  • 14. Hill DJ, Hosking CS. Infantile colic and food hypersensitivity. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2000; 30 Suppl: S67-S76.
  • 15. Sporik R, Hill DJ, Hosking CS. Specificity of allergen skin testing in predicting positive open food challenges to milk, egg and peanut in children. Clin Exp Allergy 2000; 30: 1540-1546.
  • 16. Verstege A, Mehl A, Rolinck-Werninghaus C, et al. The predictive value of the skin prick test weal size for the outcome of oral food challenges. Clin Exp Allergy 2005; 35: 1220-1226.
  • 17. Roehr CC, Reibel S, Ziegert M, et al. Atopy patch tests, together with determination of specific IgE levels, reduce the need for oral food challenges in children with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001; 107: 548-553.
  • 18. Garcia-Ara C, Boyano-Martinez T, Diaz-Pena JM, et al. Specific IgE levels in the diagnosis of immediate hypersensitivity to cows’ milk protein in the infant. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001; 107: 185-190.
  • 19. Boyano-Martinez T, Garcia-Ara C, Diaz-Pena JM, et al. Validity of specific IgE antibodies in children with egg allergy. Clin Exp Allergy 2001; 31: 1464-1469.
  • 20. Sampson HA. Utility of food-specific IgE concentrations in predicting symptomatic food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001; 107: 891-896.
  • 21. Celik-Bilgili S, Mehl A, Verstege A, et al. The predictive value of specific immunoglobulin E levels in serum for the outcome of oral food challenges. Clin Exp Allergy 2005; 35: 268-273.
  • 22. Bock SA, Sampson HA, Atkins FM, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) as an office procedure: a manual. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1988; 82: 986-997.
  • 23. Bischoff S, Crowe SE. Gastrointestinal food allergy: new insights into pathophysiology and clinical perspectives. Gastroenterology 2005; 128: 1089-1113.
  • 24. Hill DJ, Sporik R, Thorburn J, Hosking CS. The association of atopic dermatitis in infancy with immunoglobulin E food sensitization. J Pediatr 2000; 137: 475-479.
  • 25. Prescott SL, Tang ML. The Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy position statement: summary of allergy prevention in children. Med J Aust 2005; 182: 464-467. <MJA full text>
  • 26. National Health and Medical Research Council. How to use the evidence: assessment and application of scientific evidence. Canberra: NHMRC, 2000. (accessed Jul 2006).
  • 27. ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition; Agostoni C, Axelsson I, Goulet O, et al. Soy protein infant formulae and follow-on formulae: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2006; 42: 352-361.
  • 28. Hill DJ, Heine RG, Cameron DJ, et al. The natural history of intolerance to soy and extensively hydrolyzed formula in infants with multiple food protein intolerance. J Pediatr 1999; 135: 118-121.
  • 29. Bock SA, Munoz-Furlong A, Sampson HA. Fatalities due to anaphylactic reactions to foods. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001; 107: 191-193.
  • 30. Kemp AS. EpiPen epidemic: suggestions for rational prescribing in childhood food allergy. J Paediatr Child Health 2003; 39: 372-375.
  • 31. Baumgart K, Brown S, Gold M, et al; Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy Anaphylaxis Working Party. ASCIA guidelines for prevention of food anaphylactic reactions in schools, preschools and child-care centres. J Paediatr Child Health 2004; 40: 669-671.
  • 32. Bailey M, Haverson K, Inman C, et al. The development of the mucosal immune system pre- and post-weaning: balancing regulatory and effector function. Proc Nutr Soc 2005; 64: 451-457.
  • 33. Brandtzaeg PE. Current understanding of gastrointestinal immunoregulation and its relation to food allergy. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002; 964: 13-45.
  • 34. Bashir MEH, Louie S, Shi HN, Nagler-Anderson C. Toll-like receptor 4 signaling by intestinal microbes influences susceptibility to food allergy. J Immunol 2004; 172: 6978-6987.
  • 35. Kalliomaki M, Kirjavainen P, Eerola E, et al. Distinct patterns of neonatal gut microflora in infants in whom atopy was and was not developing. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001; 107: 129-134.
  • 36. Zutavern A, Brockow I, Schaaf B, et al. Timing of solid food introduction in relation to atopic dermatitis and atopic sensitization: results from a prospective birth cohort study. Pediatrics 2006; 117: 401-411.
  • 37. Halken S, Host A. Prevention. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2001; 1: 229-236.
  • 38. Weiner JM. Allergen injection immunotherapy. Med J Aust 2006; 185: 234. <MJA full text>
  • 39. Leung DY, Sampson HA, Yunginger JW, et al. Effect of anti-IgE therapy in patients with peanut allergy. N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 986-993.
  • 40. Lehrer SB. Genetic modification of food allergens. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2004; 93 (5 Suppl 3): S19-S25.


remove_circle_outline Delete Author
add_circle_outline Add Author

Do you have any competing interests to declare? *

I/we agree to assign copyright to the Medical Journal of Australia and agree to the Conditions of publication *
I/we agree to the Terms of use of the Medical Journal of Australia *
Email me when people comment on this article

Responses are now closed for this article.