Modifiable risk factors for age-related macular degeneration

Robyn H Guymer and Elaine Wei-Tinn Chong
Med J Aust 2006; 184 (9): 455-458.


  • Robyn H Guymer1
  • Elaine Wei-Tinn Chong2

  • Department of Ophthalmology, Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC.


Competing interests:

None identified.

  • 1. McCarty CA, Mukesh BN, Fu CL, et al. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy: the Visual Impairment Project. Arch Ophthalmol 2001; 119: 1455-1462.
  • 2. Access Economics. Clear insight. The economic impact and cost of visual loss in Australia. Melbourne: Eye Research Australia, 2004. Available at: (accessed Mar 2006).
  • 3. Klein R, Klein BE, Tomany SC, et al. Ten-year incidence and progression of age-related maculopathy: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology 2002; 109: 1767-1779.
  • 4. Vingerling JR, Hofman A, Grobbee DE, et al. Age-related macular degeneration and smoking. The Rotterdam Study. Arch Ophthalmol 1996; 114: 1193-1196.
  • 5. Thornton J, Edwards R, Mitchell P, et al. Smoking and age-related macular degeneration: a review of association. Eye 2005; 19: 935-944.
  • 6. Sperduto RD, Hiller R. Systemic hypertension and age-related maculopathy in the Framingham Study. Arch Ophthalmol 1986; 104: 216-219.
  • 7. Goldberg J, Flowerdew G, Smith E, et al. Factors associated with age-related macular degeneration. An analysis of data from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Epidemiol 1988; 128: 700-710.
  • 8. Vidaurri JS, Pe’er J, Halfon ST, et al. Association between drusen and some of the risk factors for coronary artery disease. Ophthalmologica 1984; 188: 243-247.
  • 9. Hyman L, Schachat AP, He Q, et al. Hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and age-related macular degeneration. Age-Related Macular Degeneration Risk Factors Study Group. Arch Ophthalmol 2000; 118: 351-358.
  • 10. Klein R, Klein BE, Franke T. The relationship of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors to age-related maculopathy. The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology 1993; 100: 406-414.
  • 11. Smith W, Mitchell P, Leeder SR, et al. Plasma fibrinogen levels, other cardiovascular risk factors, and age-related maculopathy: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Arch Ophthalmol 1998; 116: 583-587.
  • 12. Schaumberg DA, Christen WG, Hankinson SE, et al. Body mass index and the incidence of visually significant age-related maculopathy in men. Arch Ophthalmol 2001; 119: 1259-1265.
  • 13. Klein BE, Klein R, Lee KE, et al. Measures of obesity and age-related eye diseases. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2001; 8: 251-262.
  • 14. Chaine G, Hullo A, Sahel J, et al. Case-control study of the risk factors for age related macular degeneration. France-DMLA Study Group. Br J Ophthalmol 1998; 82: 996-1002.
  • 15. Vingerling JR, Dielemans I, Bots ML, et al. Age-related macular degeneration is associated with atherosclerosis. The Rotterdam Study. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 142: 404-409.
  • 16. Risk factors for choroidal neovascularization in the second eye of patients with juxtafoveal or subfoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration. Macular Photocoagulation Study Group. Arch Ophthalmol 1997; 115: 741-747.
  • 17. Guymer RH, Chiu AW, Lim L, et al. HMG CoA reductase inhibitors (statins): do they have a role in age-related macular degeneration? Surv Ophthalmol 2005; 50: 194-206.
  • 18. Klein R, Klein BE, Tomany SC, et al. Relation of statin use to the 5-year incidence and progression of age-related maculopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 2003; 121: 1151-1155.
  • 19. McCarty CA, Mukesh BN, Guymer RH, et al. Cholesterol-lowering medications reduce the risk of age-related maculopathy progression [letter]. Med J Aust 2001; 175: 340.
  • 20. Guymer RH, Robman L, Varsamidis M, et al. Can HMG Co-A reductase inhibitors (“Statins”) slow the progression of AMD? In: Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Abstract No. 2364; 2005. Fort Lauderdale, Florida: ARVO, 2005.
  • 21. Sheraidah G, Steinmetz R, Maguire J, et al. Correlation between lipids extracted from Bruch’s membrane and age. Ophthalmology 1993; 100: 47-51.
  • 22. Ruberti JW, Curcio CA, Millican CL, et al. Quick-freeze/deep-etch visualization of age-related lipid accumulation in Bruch’s membrane. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003; 44: 1753-1759.
  • 23. Vinding T, Appleyard M, Nyboe J, et al. Risk factor analysis for atrophic and exudative age-related macular degeneration. An epidemiological study of 1000 aged individuals. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1992; 70: 66-72.
  • 24. Seddon JM, Rosner B, Sperduto RD, et al. Dietary fat and risk for advanced age-related macular degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol 2001; 119: 1191-1199.
  • 25. Seddon JM, Cote J, Rosner B. Progression of age-related macular degeneration: association with dietary fat, transunsaturated fat, nuts, and fish intake. Arch Ophthalmol 2003; 121: 1728-1737.
  • 26. Mares-Perlman JA, Brady WE, Klein R, et al. Dietary fat and age-related maculopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 1995; 113: 743-748.
  • 27. Cho E, Hung S, Willett WC, et al. Prospective study of dietary fat and the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Am J Clin Nutr 2001; 73: 209-218.
  • 28. Mansour MP, Sinclair AJ. The trans fatty acid and positional (sn-2) fatty acid composition of some Australian margarines, dairy blends and animal fats. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 1993; 2: 155-163.
  • 29. Smith W, Mitchell P, Leeder SR. Dietary fat and fish intake and age-related maculopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 2000; 118: 401-404.
  • 30. Chua B, Flood V, Rochtchina E, et al. Dietary fatty acids and the 5-year incidence of age related maculopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 2006. In press.
  • 31. Mozaffarieh M, Sacu S, Wedrich A. The role of the carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, in protecting against age-related macular degeneration: a review based on controversial evidence. Nutr J 2003; 2: 20.
  • 32. Alves-Rodrigues A, Shao A. The science behind lutein. Toxicol Lett 2004; 150: 57-83.
  • 33. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss: AREDS report no. 8. Arch Ophthalmol 2001; 119: 1417-1436.
  • 34. Omenn GS, Goodman GE, Thornquist MD, et al. Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 1150-1155.
  • 35. The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 1029-1035.
  • 36. Ng WT, Goggin M. Awareness of and compliance with recommended dietary supplement among age-related macular degeneration patients. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2006; 34: 9-14.
  • 37. Taylor HR, Tikellis G, Robman LD, et al. Vitamin E supplementation and macular degeneration: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2002; 325: 11.
  • 38. Teikari JM, Laatikainen L, Virtamo J, et al. Six-year supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene and age-related maculopathy. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 1998; 76: 224-229.


remove_circle_outline Delete Author
add_circle_outline Add Author

Do you have any competing interests to declare? *

I/we agree to assign copyright to the Medical Journal of Australia and agree to the Conditions of publication *
I/we agree to the Terms of use of the Medical Journal of Australia *
Email me when people comment on this article

Responses are now closed for this article.