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5: Diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism

Duncan J Topliss and Creswell J Eastman
Med J Aust 2004; 180 (4): 186-193.
  • Duncan J Topliss1
  • Creswell J Eastman2

  • 1 Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, VIC.
  • 2 Institute of Clinical Pathology and Medical Research, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, NSW.

Correspondence: 

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  • 2. Vanderpump MP, Tunbridge WM, French JM, et al. The incidence of thyroid disorders in the community: a twenty-year follow-up of the Whickham Survey. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1995; 43: 55-68.
  • 3. Spencer CA, Takeuchi M, Kazarosyan M. Current status and performance goals for serum thyrotropin (TSH) assays. Clin Chem 1996; 42: 140-145.
  • 4. Stockigt JR. Free thyroid hormone measurement. A critical appraisal. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2001; 30: 265-289.
  • 5. Chen QY, Huang W, She JX, et al. HLA-DRB1*08, DRB1*03/DRB3*0101, and DRB3*0202 are susceptibility genes for Graves disease in North American Caucasians, whereas DRB1*07 is protective. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84: 3182-3186.
  • 6. Torring O, Tallstedt L, Wallin G, et al. Graves’ hyperthyroidism: treatment with antithyroid drugs, surgery, or radioiodine — a prospective, randomized study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996; 81: 2986-2993.
  • 7. Walsh JP. Management of Graves’ disease in Australia. Aust N Z J Med 2000; 30: 559-566.
  • 8. Maugendre D, Gatel A, Campion L, et al. Antithyroid drugs and Graves’ disease – prospective randomized assessment of long-term treatment. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1999; 50: 127-132.
  • 9. McIver B, Rae P, Beckett G, et al. Lack of effect of thyroxine in patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism who are treated with an antithyroid drug. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 220-224.
  • 10. Graham GD, Burman KD. Radioiodine treatment of Graves’ disease. An assessment of its potential risks. Ann Intern Med 1986; 105: 900-905.
  • 11. Martin FI, Deam D. Hyperthyroidism in elderly hospitalised patients. Clinical features and treatment outcomes. Med J Aust 1996; 164: 200-203.
  • 12. Ross DS, Ridgway EC, Daniels GH. Successful treatment of solitary thyroid nodules with relatively low-dose iodine-131, with low prevalence of hypothyroidism. Ann Intern Med 1984; 101: 488-490.
  • 13. Fradkin JE, Wolff J. Iodide-induced thyrotoxicosis. Medicine (Baltimore) 1983; 62: 1-20.
  • 14. Wong R, Cheung W, Stockigt JR, Topliss DJ. Heterogeneity of amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis: evaluation of colour-flow Doppler sonography in predicting therapeutic response. Intern Med J 2003; 33: 420-426.
  • 15. Sawin CT, Geller A, Kaplan MM, et al. Low serum thyrotropin concentrations as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation in older persons. N Engl J Med 1994; 331: 1249-1252.
  • 16. Schneider DL, Barrett-Connor EL, Morton DJ. Thyroid hormone use and bone mineral density in elderly women. Effects of estrogen. JAMA 1994; 271: 1245-1249.
  • 17. Cohen JH 3rd, Ingbar SH, Braverman LE. Thyrotoxicosis due to ingestion of excess thyroid hormone. Endocr Rev 1989; 10: 113-124.
  • 18. Beck-Peccoz P, Brucker-Davis F, Persani L, et al. Thyrotropin-secreting tumors. Endocr Rev 1996; 17: 610-638.
  • 19. Wynne AG, Gharib H, Scheitnauer BW, et al. Hyperthyroidism due to inappropriate secretion of thyrotropin in 10 patients. Am J Med 1992; 92: 15-20.
  • 20. Hamblin PS, Dyer SA, Mohr VS, et al. Relationship between thyrotropin and thyroxine changes during recovery from severe hypothyroxinemia of critical illness. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1986; 62: 717-722.
  • 21. Eastman CJ. Where has all our iodine gone? Med J Aust 1999; 171: 455-456.
  • 22. Smerdely P, Boyages SC, Waite K, et al. Topical iodine-containing antiseptics and neonatal hypothyroidism in very-low-birthweight infants. Lancet 1989; 2: 661-664.
  • 23. Ayala AR, Danese MD, Ladenson PW. When to treat mild hypothyroidism. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2000; 29: 399-415.
  • 24. Chopra IJ, Baber K. Treatment of primary hypothyroidism during pregnancy: is there an increase in thyroxine dose requirement in pregnancy? Metabolism 2003; 52: 122-128.
  • 25. Haddow JE, Palomakei GE, Allan WC, et al. Maternal thyroid deficiency during pregnancy and subsequent neuropsychological development of the child. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 549-555.
  • 26. Bunevicius R, Kazanavicius G, Zalinkevicius R, Prange AJ Jr. Effects of thyroxine as compared with thyroxine plus triiodothyronine in patients with hypothyroidism. N Engl J Med 1999; 340: 424-429.
  • 27. Walsh JP, Shiels L, Lim EM, et al. Combined thyroxine/liothyronine treatment does not improve well-being, quality of life or cognitive function compared to thyroxine alone: a randomized controlled trial in patients with primary hypothyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88: 4543-4550.

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