Both men and women are becoming increasingly concerned about their physical appearance and are seeking cosmetic enhancement.
Most studies report that people are generally happy with the outcome of cosmetic procedures, but little rigorous evaluation has been done.
More extensive ("type change") procedures (eg, rhinoplasty) appear to require greater psychological adjustment by the patient than "restorative" procedures (eg, face-lift).
Patients who have unrealistic expectations of outcome are more likely to be dissatisfied with cosmetic procedures.
Some people are never satisfied with cosmetic interventions, despite good procedural outcomes. Some of these have a psychiatric disorder called "body dysmorphic disorder".
- 1. Garner DM. Body image survey. Psychol Today 1997; 30: 30-84.
- 2. Castle DJ, Phillips KA, editors. Disorders of body image. Hampshire, UK: Wrightson Biomedical, 2002.
- 3. Edgerton MT, Jacobsen WE, Meyer E. Surgical-psychiatric study of patients seeking plastic (cosmetic) surgery: ninety-eight consecutive patients with minimal deformity. Br J Plast Surg 1960; 13: 136-145.
- 4. Glatt BS, Sarwer DB, O'Hara DE, et al. A retrospective study of changes in physical symptoms and body image after reduction mammaplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg 1999; 103: 76-85.
- 5. Edgerton MT, Webb WL, Slaughter R, Meter E. Surgical results and psychosocial changes following rhytidectomy. Plast Reconstr Surg 1964; 33: 503-521.
- 6. Wright MR, Wright WK. A psychological study of patients undergoing cosmetic surgery. Arch Otolaryngol 1975; 101: 145-151.
- 7. Shipley RH, O'Donnel JM, Bader KF. Psychological effects of cosmetic augmentation mammaplasty. Aesthetic Plast Surg 1978; 2: 429-434.
- 8. Marcus P. Psychological aspects of cosmetic rhinoplasty. Br J Plast Surg 1987; 37: 313-318.
- 9. Hueston J, Dennerstein L, Gotts G. Psychological aspects of cosmetic surgery. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 1985; 4: 335-346.
- 10. Beale S, Hambert G, Lisper H, et al. Augmentation mammaplasty: the surgical and psychological effects of the operation and prediction of the result. Ann Plast Surg 1985; 14: 473-493.
- 11. Hollyman JA, Lacey JH, Whitfield PJ, Wilson JSP. Surgery for the psyche: a longitudinal study of women undergoing reduction mammaplasty. Br J Plast Surg 1986; 39: 222-224.
- 12. Meyer L, Ringberg A. Augmentation mammaplasty: psychiatric and psychosocial characteristics and outcome in a group of Swedish women. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg 1987; 21: 199-208.
- 13. Robin AA, Copas JB, Jack AB, et al. Reshaping the psyche: the concurrent improvement in appearance and mental state after rhinoplasty. Br J Psychiatry 1988; 152: 539-543.
- 14. Klassen A, Fitzpatrick R, Jenkinson C, Goodacre T. Should breast reduction surgery be rationed? A comparison of health status of patients before and after treatment: postal questionnaire survey. BMJ 1996; 313: 454-457.
- 15. Klassen A, Jenkinson C, Fitzpatrick R, Goodacre T. Patients' health related quality of life before and after aesthetic plastic surgery. Br J Plast Surg 1996; 49: 433-438.
- 16. Sarwer DB, Wadden TA, Pertschuk MJ, Whitaker LA. The psychology of cosmetic surgery: a review and reconceptualization. Clin Psychol Rev 1998; 18: 1-22.
- 17. Pruzinsky T, Edgerton MT. Body-image change in cosmetic plastic surgery. In: Cash TF, Pruzinsky T, editors. Body images: development, deviance, and change. New York: Guildford Press, 1990: 217-236.
- 18. Beale S, Hambert G, Lisper H, et al. Augmentation mammaplasty: the surgical and psychological effects of the operation and prediction of the result. Ann Plast Surg 1985; 14: 473-493.
- 19. Phillips KA, McElroy SL, Keck PE Jr, et al. Body dysmorphic disorder: 30 cases of imagined ugliness. Am J Psychiatry 1993; 150: 302-308.
- 20. Phillips KA. The broken mirror: understanding and treating body dysmorphic disorder. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
- 21. Sarwer DB, Wadden TA, Pertschuk MJ, et al. Body image dissatisfaction and body dysmorphic disorder in 100 cosmetic surgery patients. Plast Reconstr Surg 1998; 101: 1644-1649.
- 22. Ishigooka J, Iwao M, Suzuki M, et al. Demographic features of patients seeking cosmetic surgery. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998; 52: 283-287.
- 23. Phillips KA, Dufresne RG Jr, Wilkel C, Vittorio C. Rate of body dysmorphic disorder in dermatology patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000; 42: 436-441.
- 24. Veale D. Outcome of cosmetic surgery and "DIY" surgery in patients with body dysmorphic disorder. Psychiatr Bull 2000; 24: 218-221.
- 25. Phillips KA, Grant JD, Siniscalchi J, Albertini RS. Surgical and nonpsychiatric medical treatment of patients with body dysmorphic disorder. Psychosomatics 2001; 42: 504-510.
- 26. Phillips KA, McElroy SL, Lion JR. Body dysmorphic disorder in cosmetic surgery patients [letter]. Plast Reconstr Surg 1992; 90: 333-334.
- 27. Cotterill JA. Body dysmorphic disorder. Dermatol Clin 1996; 14: 457-463.
- 28. Dufresne RG, Phillips KA, Vittorio CC, Wilkel CS. A screening questionnaire for body dysmorphic disorder in a cosmetic dermatologic surgery practice. Dermatol Surg 2001; 27: 457-462.
Publication of your online response is subject to the Medical Journal of Australia's editorial discretion. You will be notified by email within five working days should your response be accepted.