Reference examples

Note that Wikipedia is generally not acceptable as a reference source.

Articles in journals

(List all authors, but if number exceeds four, give three followed by “et al”. Use PubMed abbreviations for journal titles)

You CH, Lee K, Chey RY, Meng R. Study of patients with unexplained nausea. Gastroenterology 1980; 79: 311-314.

Smith LM, Haynes RB, Owen D, et al. Predisposing factors to Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet 1989; 1: 352-355.

Hebert LA, Rovin B. Uric acid and cardiovascular risk. N Engl J Med 2009; 360: 540-541.

Royal Marsden Hospital Bone Marrow Transplant Team. Failure of bone marrow graft without preconditioning. Lancet 1977; 2: 742-744.

Smith LM, Jones RB, Wilson D, et al; American Diabetes Association. Diabetes update. Diabetes Care 2009; 10: 1-5.

Coffee drinking and cancer of the pancreas [editorial]. BMJ 1981; 283: 628.

Books, monographs, chapters, conference proceedings

(Multiple authors subject to the same guidelines as above; editors or institutions may be authors. Give the place of publication, the name of the publisher and the year published)

Colson J, Armour W. Sports injuries and their treatment. 2nd ed. London: Elsevier, 1986.

Diener HC, Wilkinson M, editors. Drug-induced headache. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1988.

National Health and Medical Research Council. Australian alcohol guidelines: health risks and benefits. Canberra: NHMRC, 2001.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. 2004 National Drug Strategy household survey: detailed findings. Canberra: AIHW, 2005. (AIHW Cat. No. PHE 66; Drug Statistics Series No. 16.) publications/phe/ndshsdf04/ndshsdf04.pdf (accessed Jan 2009).

Weinstein L, Gill P. Pathologic properties of invading microorganisms. In: Soderman WA, Beale T, editors. Pathologic physiology: mechanisms of disease. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1974: 347-359.

Harley NH. Comparing radon daughter dosimetric and risk models. In: Gammage RB, Kaye SV, editors. Indoor air and human health. Proceedings of the 7th Life Sciences Symposium; 1984 Oct 29-31; Knoxville, Tenn. Chelsea, Mich: Lewis, 1985: 69-78.

Internet references

(Do not just give URLs. Give the authors [if available], the organisation, the title of the webpage and the relevant section on the webpage, and a date if relevant. Provide the month and year the webpage was visited.)

Britt H, Miller GC, Charles J, et al. General practice activity in Australia 1999–2000. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2000. (AIHW Cat. No. GEP 5; General Practice Series No. 5.) (accessed Oct 2002).

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Australia’s health 2010. Canberra: AIHW, 2010. (AIHW Cat. No. AUS 122.) (accessed Oct 2011).

Heart Foundation. Information for professionals. Melbourne: Heart Foundation, 2011. (accessed Sep 2011).

Family Medicine Research Centre. Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health (BEACH). Public BEACH data. (accessed Sep 2011).

Cancer Council Australia [website]. (accessed Oct 2011).

Calligeros M. Balcony collapse mum dies. The Age (Melbourne) 2008; 21 Nov. (accessed Feb 2009).